NW Climate Science Digest
Aquatic Resources, Stream Flow, Hydrology in the Western U.S.
Snowmelt rate dictates streamflow
Barnhart, T. B., N. P. Molotch, B. Livneh, A. A. Harpold, J. F. Knowles, and D. Schneider. 2016. Snowmelt rate dictates streamflow, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 8006–8016, doi:10.1002/2016GL069690.
A new study from the University of Colorado looked at the relationship between snowmelt rate and streamflow generation using the Budyko framework, a mechanism used to compare streamflow and evaporative partitioning of different watersheds for a given amount of available energy and precipitation. The authors quantified an ensemble of “Budyko streamflow anomalies” and correlated them with simulated baseflow efficiency and simulated snowmelt rate. These findings support a possible streamflow generation mechanism where greater snowmelt rates increase subsurface flow. Significance of the mechanism detected in this study includes the possibility of decreased streamflow production under slower snowmelt conditions.
Earlier snowmelt reduces carbon storage
Winchell, T. S., D. M. Barnard, R. K. Monson, S. P. Burns, and N. P. Molotch (2016), Earlier snowmelt reduces atmospheric carbon uptake in midlatitude subalpine forests, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 8160–8168, doi:10.1002/2016GL069769.
A team of researchers from the University of Colorado examined the relationship between carbon uptake and snow ablation periods in this new study. The authors used 15 years of eddy covariance data in Colorado and found that the colder ablation-period air temperatures during years with earlier snowmelt led to reduced carbon uptake. From this observed phenomenon, the authors then projected net carbon uptake for an average mid-century ablation period using a multilinear regression. Findings from this projection show a possible 45% reduction in carbon uptake due to earlier snowmelt caused by increased global temperatures.
The Department of the Interior releases online tool to protect “sagebrush sea” from wildfire
The Department of the Interior has released a new online tool designed to help land managers make sagebrush habitat more resilient to wildfires. The online tool, developed by the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Geological Survey, gives federal, state and local officials access to a collection of geographic information system data, including extensive landscape-scale information. The data can be used to create printable maps to help select areas for preventative actions that will reduce the potential for future fires in sagebrush habitat. The online tool is one product from years of work by federal, state and local leaders to save the greater sage grouse, which depend on the sagebrush ecosystem to provide cover from predators and shelter to raise their chicks. Unfortunately, sagebrush burns easily and takes years to recover. Wildfires in recent years have scorched millions of acres of sagebrush across the West.
Biodiversity/Species and Ecosystem Response
Managing climate change refugia to protect wildlife
Morelli, T.L., Daly, C., Dobrowski, S.Z., Dulen, D.M., Ebersole, J.L., Jackson, S.T., Lundquist, J.D., Millar, C.I., Maher, S.P., Monahan, W.B., Nydick, K.R., Redmond, K.T., Sawyer, S.C., Stock, S., & Beissinger, S.R. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation. PLOS ONE, 2016; 11 (8): e0159909 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159909
A large group of resource managers and scientists from various Climate Science Centers have collaborated to better understand how to manage climate change refugia, or specific landscapes that are more resilient and climate-stable for their existing ecology. Toni Morelli, a USGS research ecologist with the Northwest Climate Science Center, and colleagues outlined steps, challenges, and current opportunities for managing refugia, including specific examples like freshwater refugia for cold-water-dependent species, and refugia for more mobile animals such as wolverines. While the authors acknowledge that climate change refugia will likely dissipate in the long-term as temperatures continue to warm, they also emphasize the need to take advantage of these natural short-term climate buffers as part of larger management strategies.
Plants can run but they can’t hide from warming
Williams, J.L., Kendall, B.E., Levine, J.M. 2016. Rapid evolution accelerates plant population spread in fragmented experimental landscapes. Science 353 (6298): 482-485 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6268.
A recently published study from the University of British Columbia examined the significance of evolution on plant species migration in varyingly patchy landscapes. Plant ecologist Jennifer Williams and her colleagues designed a lab experiment measuring six generations of seed dispersal of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana across landscapes with varying patchiness. The authors were able to measure the impact of evolution on seed dispersal by precluding natural selection within half the experimental seeds. The “no evolution” experimental group was cultivated by removing newly germinated seedlings and replacing them with individuals of the same genotype as the parent generation. After six generations, the study found that evolving species spread 11% farther than non-evolving species in non-patchy (continuous) landscapes, and 200% farther than non-evolving species in the most fragmented environments. The results of this study show the significance of evolution as a driving mechanism in plants’ ability to migrate in response to climate change.
Interactive map shows where animals will move under climate change
Joshua Lawler, a NW CSC- funded scientist from the University of Washington, and colleagues from the Nature Conservancy have produced an interactive map of the Western Hemisphere, illustrating where mammals, birds and amphibians are projected to migrate in response to climate change. The animated map is color coded for the aforementioned three animal classes, and shows a mass exodus toward northern regions, with empty black zones showing where large cities or landscape features like the Great Lakes block migration. The map predicts the Appalachian Mountains act as a highway for species moving north. In the west, mountain ranges and protected areas will also serve as conduits, but many of the higher mountains will also serve as refuges themselves. The researchers plan to calculate migration shifts for species in western regions of the U.S. at finer resolutions, then apply that information to find the places most important to protect for movement under climate change. Access the full map here: http://maps.tnc.org/migrations-in-motion/#4/19.00/-78.00.
Some fish are adjusting body defenses to deal with acidification
Schunter, C., Welch, M.J., Ryu, T., Zhang, H., Berumen, M.L., Nilsson, G.E., Munday, P.L., & Ravasi, T. 2016. Molecular signatures of transgenerational response to ocean acidification in a species of reef fish. Nature Climate Change doi:10.1038/nclimate3087
In a recently published study, scientists examined the natural ability of certain fish to adapt to changes in ocean acidification. They found their subject, spiny damselfish, to be capable of adapting to higher CO2 levels as part of the genetic mechanisms organizing their circadian clocks. This natural ability is driven by the need to accommodate the diurnal variation in ocean CO2 levels that occurs with the inactivity of photosynthesizing organisms at night. The authors of this study bred damselfish in water with near-future carbon dioxide levels and found that the fish that produced offspring with more flexible circadian clocks were able to better adjust to the high-CO2 environment. "It seems the tolerant offspring may have adjusted their circadian clocks as if it was always night," said Timothy Ravasi, one of the authors of the study at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia.
Climate and Weather Reports and Services
Successful simulation of the Pineapple Express
Shields, A. & Kiehl, J.T. 2016. Simulating the Pineapple Express in the half degree Community Climate System Model, CCSM4, Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 7767–7773, doi:10.1002/2016GL069476.
A recent publication in Geophysical Research Letters synthesizes the ability of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) to capture the Pineapple Express, an atmospheric river that originates in the deep tropics and extends poleward along the west coast of North America. Recent analysis of the CCSM4 high-resolution ensemble simulations shows accurate capture of the spatial and temporal climatology of the Pineapple Express. Further analysis of these simulations indicates a significant increase in storm duration and intensity of precipitation associated with landfall of the atmospheric river.
A new statistically downscaled climate model dataset covering the conterminous U.S.
A new statistically downscaled climate model dataset of the conterminous U.S., funded by the NW CSC and the SE CSC, is now available for download. Statistical downscaling is a method of acquiring small-scale future climate predictions using climate data produced at a large scale. The downscaling process generates information that is useful for making decisions and adapting to the impacts of climate change on a local or regional scale. This dataset is called MACAv2-METDATA and it contains daily downscaled meteorological and hydrological projections for the conterminous U.S. at 4-km resolution. The dataset includes variables such as maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, humidity data, downward solar radiation, and eastward and northward wind. This dataset can be downloaded from the USGS GeoData Portal (GDP). The GDP houses large datasets, often the products of large-scale modeling efforts such as climate downscaling, and makes these datasets easier for scientists, managers, and the public to access and process the information for additional analyses.
Signatures of extreme precipitation events in the western U.S.
McCabe-Glynn, S., K. R. Johnson, C. Strong, Y. Zou, J. Y. Yu, S. Sellars, and J. M. Welker 2016. Isotopic signature of extreme precipitation events in the western U.S. and associated phases of Arctic and tropical climate models, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 8913–8924, doi:10.1002/2016JD025524.
A collaborative team of climate scientists recently published a study examining the projected changes to the intensity and frequency of atmospheric rivers, or extreme precipitation events, in western North America. The team utilized climate and precipitation isotope data to evaluate atmospheric rivers in California from 2001 to 2011. The study found that 90% of atmospheric river events reaching California occurred during the negative Arctic Oscillation, which could indicate an association with periods of warm temperatures in the higher latitudes. In addition to this dataset, the team examined precipitation data across the entire western U.S. and found that the wettest conditions occurred when the negative Arctic Oscillation, the negative Pacific/North America pattern, and the positive Southern Oscillation were in sync. This also coincided with an increase in precipitation in the southwestern U.S. and a decrease in the Northwest. The team additionally concluded that the landfall location, intensity and isotopic composition of atmospheric river events depends upon the type of El Nino event (Central Pacific or Eastern Pacific).
An evaluation of high-resolution regional climate model simulations of snow cover
Minder, J. R., T. W. Letcher, and S. M. Skiles. 2016. An evaluation of high-resolution regional climate model simulations of snow cover and albedo over the Rocky Mountains, with implications for the simulated snow-albedo feedback, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 9069–9088, doi:10.1002/2016JD024995.
A study recently published in the Journal of Geophysical Research evaluated the ability of high-resolution regional climate model simulations to accurately capture snow cover and surface albedo in midlatitudinal mountainous regions. Climate scientist Justin Minder from the State University of New York at Albany and his colleagues compared seven years of simulation data from the Weather Research and Forecasting model over the central Rocky Mountains to high-resolution satellite data of snow cover and albedo. The study found the simulations to exhibit important biases. One exhibited a large positive bias in surface albedo, and the other a negative bias in areal snow cover. The authors concluded that more work is required in order for regional climate models to produce confident projections of climate change over mountainous regions.
Projected changes in heat extremes and associated synoptic/mesoscale conditions over the northwest U.S.
Brewer, M.C. & Mass, C.F. 2016. Projected Changes in Heat Extremes and Associated Synoptic- and Mesoscale Conditions over the Northwest United States. Journal of Climate DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0641.1
Atmospheric scientists Matthew Brewer and Clifford Mass from the University of Washington examined the frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves in the northwest U.S., a region where synoptic and mesoscale circulations interact with local topography and land/water interfaces to generate complex and less understood heat extremes. Published in the Journal of Climate, the study used global and regional climate models to analyze changes to the conditions associated with heat extremes over the Northwest U.S. While the study’s findings projected increased temperatures and soil moisture declines, both associated with exacerbating heat extremes, findings also predicted less offshore flow due to narrower low-level zonal wind distribution. The dampening of strong offshore flows could mean less extreme warming events, as heat waves are associated with the strongest offshore flow. Results from this study indicate less severe increases in heat extremes for western Oregon and Washington compared to inland areas.
The changing shape of Northern Hemisphere summer temperature distributions
McKinnon, K. A., A. Rhines, M. P. Tingley, and P. Huybers. 2016. The changing shape of Northern Hemisphere summer temperature distributions, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 8849–8868, doi:10.1002/2016JD025292.
A new study published in The Journal of Geophysical Research evaluated the distribution of summer temperature in the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. National Center for Atmospheric Research scientist, Karen McKinnon, and colleagues used data from over 4,000 weather stations to calculate the changes in daily maximum and minimum temperature distributions for peak summer between 1980 and 2015. The study found that North America and Eurasia displayed significant shifts in the estimated distributions of daily maximum and minimum temperatures. On a regional scale, variance in the distribution has increased in Eurasia and mostly decreased in North America.
Atmospheric river landfall-latitude changes in future climate simulations
Shields, C. A. & Kiehl, J.T. 2016. Atmospheric river landfall-latitude changes in future climate simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL070470.
Scientists from the National Center for Atmospheric Research recently published a study examining projected changes to latitude of landfall for atmospheric rivers. The study examined climate simulations of atmospheric rivers in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic using version 4 of the Community Climate System Model. The study found that the atmospheric rivers along the west coast of the U.S. are projected to move toward the equator and experience increased rainfall intensity. Concerning the simulations of atmospheric rivers along the North Atlantic, the study found projected landfall to be more dependent upon eddy-driven jets and seasons.
Coastal/Marine Ecosystems, Ocean Acidification, Sea Level Rise
Pacific sea level predicts global temperature changes
Peyser, C.E., Yin, J., Landerer, F.W., & Cole, J.E. 2016. Pacific sea level rise patterns and global surface temperature variability. Geophysical Research Letters, 43. doi:10.1002/2016GL069401.
A new report led by geoscientists from the University of Arizona examined the relationship between changes in sea level in the western Pacific Ocean and global temperature changes. The authors first used global climate models to identify and quantify the relationship between these two phenomena, and then used the calculated correlation to better understand sea level changes measured by satellites. The authors observed that the rise in global temperatures slowed during periods of rapid sea level rise in the western Pacific and quickened during periods when sea level dropped in the western Pacific but rose in the eastern Pacific. The east-west contrast in sea level along the Pacific acts as a natural sea-saw, and is now understood to oscillate between dampening and exacerbating anthropogenic changes in global temperature.
Climate change already accelerating sea level rise
Fasullo, J.T., Nerem, R.S., Hamlington, B. 2016. Is the detection of accelerated sea level rise imminent? Scientific Reports 6: 31245 DOI: 10.1038/srep31245
Global climate simulations project sea level to rise at an accelerating rate, however sea level has steadily risen at approximately 3mm per year since satellite observations began in 1993. A recent report published in Nature Scientific Reports analyzed the internal climate variability that has kept the rate of sea level rise consistent since the early 1990s, and found that the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 is most likely responsible. The volcanic eruption was a temporary cooling source for the planet and has since masked the impact of global warming on sea level rise. The research team found that Pinatubo’s eruption caused the sea levels to drop by approximately 6 mm, and this was just before the first satellites began recording observations. John Fasullo, a scientist with the National Center for Atmospheric Research and lead author, said in an interview, “Now that the impacts of Pinatubo have faded, this acceleration should become evident in the satellite measurements in the coming decade, barring another major volcanic eruption.”
Marine carbon sinking rates confirm importance of cold water oceans
Weber, T., Cram, J.A., Leunga, S.W., DeVries, T., & Deutsch, C. 2016. Deep ocean nutrients imply large latitudinal variation in particle transfer efficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 113 (31): 8606-8611. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1604414113.
A new study from the University of Washington examined the sinking rates of marine carbon in various regions of the world’s oceans. Using a data-constrained ocean circulation model as well as estimates of organic matter export from the sea surface, the authors were able to calculate the “transfer efficiency” of organic matter to the deep ocean. The study found that higher latitudes were the most efficient marine carbon sinks while subtropical gyres were the least efficient. These findings emphasize the significance of high-latitude, cold water oceans for marine carbon sequestration and predict a reduction in this natural carbon storage as temperatures warm.
Climate change increasing beach salinity
Geng, X., Boufadel, M.C., & Jackson, N.L. 2016. Evidence of salt accumulation in beach intertidal zone due to evaporation. Nature Scientific Reports 6(31486). doi:10.1038/srep31486
A team of researchers from the New Jersey Institute of Technology collected 400 samples of water stored in soil and rock (pore water) at a beach in Delaware Bay and analyzed them for salinity levels. The team found that, while seawater has a salt concentration of 25 grams per liter, the salinity levels from the pore water were averaging 60 grams per liter. According to Xiaolong Geng, the lead author of the study, "these elevated levels can only be caused by evaporation, as there is no other mechanism for increasing the salt in pore water.” The authors also stressed that this could be exacerbated as temperatures warm, possibly negatively impacting local ecosystems such as mussels and crabs that are sensitive to changes in salinity.
Atmospheric rivers impact sea water levels
Khouakhi, A., and G. Villarini. 2016. On the relationship between atmospheric rivers and high sea water levels along the U.S. West Coast, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL070086.
A newly published study from the University of Iowa examined the relationship between atmospheric rivers and sea level along the continental U.S. Pacific Coast. Atmospheric rivers are narrow river-like regions of atmosphere with high water vapor content and strong winds. This study contains some of the first research to examine the relationship between atmospheric rivers and sea level. Using hourly sea level time series from 15 tide gauges, the authors found that atmospheric rivers are associated with 15% to 50% of the annual sea level maxima before removing tidal oscillations. The authors concluded that atmospheric rivers are a prominent driver in extreme sea water level distribution.
Mapping the health threat of wildfires under climate change
Jia Coco Liu, Loretta J. Mickley, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Francesca Dominici, Xu Yue, Keita Ebisu, Georgiana Brooke Anderson, Rafi F. A. Khan, Mercedes A. Bravo, Michelle L. Bell. Particulate air pollution from wildfires in the Western US under climate change. Climatic Change, 2016; DOI: 10.1007/s10584-016-1762-6
New research published in Climatic Change estimates the potential future impact of increased wildfires on air pollution and human health. Led by Yale University with collaborators from Harvard and Colorado State University, the study examined levels of fine particulate matter from past and future wildfires in 561 western U.S. counties. Findings showed that 82 million individuals will experience a 57% increase in frequency and a 31% increase in intensity of extreme air pollution (at least 2 consecutive days of increased particulate matter caused by wildfire) by mid-century. Out of the 561 counties, those in Northern California, Western Oregon and the Great Plains were projected to experience the highest exposure of wildfire smoke. Additionally, the authors created an interactive map to illustrate the counties likely to be affected by future air pollution due to wildfires. Access the Interactive Map here: http://khanotations.github.io/smoke-map/.
Heat is stunting growth of Douglas firs
Restaino, C.M., Peterson, D.L., Littell, J. 2016. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113(34): 9557–9562, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1602384113
A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences examines the impact heat- and water-stress have on the productivity of Douglas firs. Scientist Christina Restaino from the University of California, Davis and her colleagues collected 2,000 tree cores from 122 locations across the western U.S in order to obtain a snapshot of Douglas fir response to climate signals between 1916 and 2006. The study found that rising temperatures remove water from both the soil and atmosphere, causing the Douglas firs to lose water faster than they can take it in. As a result, the stressed trees close their stomata (the tiny pores that take in carbon dioxide during photosynthesis and release oxygen), consequently stunting their growth and becoming less effective at storing carbon. Stunted productivity of these trees also affects biodiversity maintenance and ecosystem resilience in the long-term. In addition to this data, the team used climate models to project what their observations could mean for Douglas fir growth in future climate. They found that increased temperatures are expected to strip the air of moisture for longer periods of time, doubling the current amount of time by the 2080s. Increased tree growth decline due to water- and heat-stress were also expected.
Improving simulations of precipitation phase and snowpack at Snoqualmie Pass, WA
Wayand, N. E., J. Stimberis, J. P. Zagrodnik, C. F. Mass, and J. D. Lundquist (2016), Improving Simulations of Precipitation Phase and Snowpack at a Site Subject to Cold Air Intrusions: Snoqualmie Pass, WA, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, doi:10.1002/2016JD025387.
Mountain passes in the Western Cascades frequently experience localized inversions caused by the east-west movement of low-level cold air. This phenomenon tends to make snow and rain in the mountain passes difficult to predict. In this new study, researchers used observations of precipitation phase across Snoqualmie Pass, WA, to evaluate surface-air-temperature based on mesoscale-model-based predictions of precipitation phase during the anomalously warm 2014-2015 winter. The authors discovered a hybrid method for predicting precipitation phase that combines surface-based predictions with output from the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model. The method was found to be significantly more accurate than either individual model. The authors emphasized the importance of incorporating observations or models from above the surface layer in order to improve predictions of precipitation phase in mountain passes.
Sierra Nevada giant sequoias respond to water stress with clever adaptations
A. R. O. Chin, S. C. Sillett. 2016. Phenotypic plasticity of leaves enhances water-stress tolerance and promotes hydraulic conductivity in a tall conifer. American Journal of Botany 103 (5): 796 DOI:10.3732/ajb.1600110
Although an estimated 66 million trees have died in the Sierra Nevada since 2010, giant sequoias were only a handful among that total. Botanist Alana Chin from the American River College recently published a study on the role giant sequoia leaves play in the species’ ability to tolerate periods of water stress. Chin and her colleague collected and analyzed leaves from the crowns of five giant sequoias in Sequoia National Park. Their findings suggest that sequoia leaves contribute significantly to the tree’s tolerance to water stress. They found major differences between leaves growing high up and leaves growing near the ground. Those higher up, and therefore living under more exposed conditions with less water availability, were better suited to store water and maintain structure than those lower down on the tree. Findings also indicated that leaves utilize heat to increase transpiration, thus taking advantage of minimal sunshine during short summers in the Sierra Nevadas.
Special Reports / Announcements
CEQ releases guidance on NEPA & climate change
The Council on Environmental Quality recently released guidance for federal agencies in working to comply with requirements laid out by the National Environmental Policy Act. Included in the guidance are recommendations for assessing the direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions associated with every proposed agency action, as well as recommendations for evaluating reasonable alternatives and opportunities for mitigation that would make proposed agency actions more resilient to climate change.
Climate change will mean the end of parks as we know them
Oliver Milman, an environment journalist from The Guardian, recently released an article describing the century of anthropogenic changes that have acted on our National Parks. Climate change is evident across the country, from permafrost melt, sea level rise and increased wildfire risk in Alaska’s parks to extreme rain events and rising temperatures in Arizona’s Tumacacori National Historic Park. Additionally, dangers to biodiversity are being seen all over, including native birds in Hawaii, giant sequoias in Joshua Tree, and bears in Yellowstone. Read the full article here: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/aug/22/climate-change-national-parks-threat.
NOAA’s updated Climate Explorer now available
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association has just released an updated version of its program called Climate Explorer, a toolkit that offers public access to historical and future climate datasets. The toolkit consists of maps, graphs, and datasets of observed and projected temperature, precipitation and other climatic variables between 1950 and 2100. "The Climate Explorer is designed to help users visualize how climate conditions may change over the coming decades," said David Herring, communication and education program manager at NOAA's Climate Program Office. "Projections of how much and how fast change is happening is crucial to help communities prepare and become more resilient." Other updates to the toolkit include a redesigned, more user-friendly interface, a “Reports” section that houses state and municipal climate vulnerability assessments, adaptations plans and scientific reports, and an updated “Steps to Resilience” guide for local communities and businesses to use when building and implementing management plans.
The Union of Concerned Scientists explores climate policy in blog series
The Union of Concerned Scientists launched a new blog series that highlights some of the many current policies failing to account for the growing impacts of climate change. The blog series addresses a large range of policy issues, including needed improvements to the National Flood Insurance Program, the lack of climate change rhetoric in New Mexico’s water plan, and the state of California’s water sector under drought conditions. Posts relevant to the Northwest U.S. include: the impact of sagebrush loss on agriculture (“Why the Loss of Grasslands Is a Troubling Trend for Agriculture, in 11 Maps and Graphs”) and federal agencies’ incapacity to manage worsening wildfire risk (“Wildfires and Climate Change: Current Policies Fail to Limit Wildfire Risks”).
Tribal and Indigenous Peoples Matters
Washington seeks to change salmon ruling
In June 2016, the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that Washington state’s management of culverts violates 19th century treaties with Native American tribes because they restrict the movement of salmon. In August, Washington State asked for a rehearing, saying the decision puts millions of dollars on taxpayers to update the culverts. In order to grant a rehearing en banc, a majority of the 9th Circuit’s 28 active judges must vote in favor. The tribes involved in the case include the Suquamish Tribe, the Nisqually Indian Tribe, the Nooksack Indian Tribe, and the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation.